Chiny

Flaga Chińskiej Republiki Ludowej jest czerwona z żółtą pięcioramienną gwiazdą otoczoną czterema mniejszymi gwiazdami po prawej stronie. Został przyjęty w 1949 roku, kiedy Komunistyczna Partia Chin i Armia Ludowo-Wyzwoleńcza pokonały Kuomintang w chińskiej wojnie domowej. Flaga została podniesiona po raz pierwszy, gdy Mao Zedong proklamował Chińską Republikę Ludową 1 października 1949 roku na placu Tiananmen w Pekinie.

Większość ludzi niewiele wie o codziennym życiu w Chinach, nie mówiąc już o tym, jak to jest mieszkać tam jako emigrant. Poznawanie życia w tym prawie 1,4 miliardowym kraju może wydawać się przytłaczające. Jak możesz mieszkać gdzieś, gdzie nie możesz czytać znaków ani rozmawiać z mieszkańcami?

Szok kulturowy jest główną wadą dla wielu emigrantów. Jeśli dostępne są kompetentne wskazówki, które pomogą im łatwo się dostosować, mogą wrócić po kilku miesiącach. Przeczytaj ten przewodnik, aby poczuć się lepiej przygotowanym do przeprowadzki. Niezależnie od tego, czy planujesz mieszkać w jednym z miast „wielkiej czwórki”, Pekinie, Szanghaju, Shenzhen lub Guangzhou, czy gdzie indziej, mamy praktyczne informacje, które musisz znać. Dowiedz się o numerach alarmowych, a także o środkach transportu publicznego i zagrożeniach związanych z prowadzeniem pojazdu w Chinach na zagranicznym prawie jazdy (uwaga: nie możesz tego zrobić). Zaczniemy od plusów i minusów życia w Chinach, które powinieneś rozważyć.

Należy pamiętać, że ten przewodnik dotyczy Chin. Jeśli interesuje Cię życie w Hongkongu lub na Tajwanie, przeczytaj nasze przewodniki po tych miastach.

Nie każdy jest w stanie poradzić sobie z trudnościami życia w Chinach. Ważne jest, aby przeprowadzić badania i rozważyć zalety i wady przed przeprowadzką. Życie w tym kraju ma wiele zalet, zwłaszcza że ekspaci często dobrze zarabiają i mogą z łatwością zwiedzać Azję. Ale życie w kulturze tak bardzo odmiennej od naszej iw kraju, w którym Internet jest ograniczony, może powodować nieporozumienia i frustrację.

Wisum

Większość międzynarodowych portów lotniczych obsługuje loty do Chin.

Travel in China

Most international airports have trips to China.

Charge card

Chinese currency is called Renminbi, which literally translates to “people’s currency”. It is known internationally as the Chinese Yuan (pronounced “du-an”). This means that the currency code is RMB in China and CNY outside the country. When in China, you may also hear the yuan referred to as “kuai” (pronounced “kwai”).

China is an increasingly cashless society. It’s good to bring 200 yuan ($30) for emergencies, but most items are paid for by scanning a QR code using WeChat and Alipay’s mobile apps. It may shock you that merchants and people selling trinkets on the street will ask you to scan their QR codes instead of accepting cash. You need a Chinese bank account to use these apps.

Do and avoid

China is often portrayed as a society with a strict social code. This is not always the case, and you may find that Chinese citizens follow customs that do not apply to foreigners. However, there are certain concepts you should keep in mind.

Try to speak Mandarin or a local Chinese dialect

Saying nihao (“hello”) and smiling go a long way. Asking ni chi fan le ma (literally translated as “have you eaten?”, a thoughtful and personal way of greeting someone) will win you many friends.

Buy small gifts for friends to show them you’re thinking of them

It is common to regularly buy small gifts for friends, such as fruit, snacks or beauty products. If you are visiting a friend or their parents’ home, a small gift is appreciated.

Don’t discuss politics

The Chinese are reluctant to discuss politics. The state can become involved if you speak openly about politically controversial issues.

Don’t generalize people’s experiences

China is incredibly diverse. Someone from Guangdong is unlikely to have the same heritage, culture and life experience, or even taste for food as someone from Hubei.

Healthcare

The closer your due date in China is, the better you should prepare for what awaits you at birth. If you give birth in China, you may face additional challenges.

The language barrier will be just one of the obstacles to overcome. In addition, cultural attitudes regarding pain management during childbirth, delivery methods, the doctor-patient relationship and the role of spouses may differ greatly from your home country.

For example, caesarean sections are increasingly common among women giving birth in China. Natural births, on the other hand, are not very popular. You may also be expected to share the delivery room with several other patients, and your partner may not be allowed into the room.

Standards of medical care for newborn emergencies vary greatly from clinic to clinic in China. But in general, most babies come more or less smoothly, no matter where you give birth in China.

Religion

According to the constitution, there is freedom of religion in China, but this does not correspond to reality. Members of the Communist Party must be atheists, and religious communities are under strict surveillance. Over the past decade, controls have been tightened and reports have increased of communities being hindered in their religious practice and of believers being imprisoned or harassed.

The largest religion is Buddhism, and China is also the country in the world with the most Buddhists, 185-250 million followers according to Freedom House. Various Buddhist directions are represented, Lamaism is the Tibetan variant.

Crime

There are no major crime problems in the country. Petty crimes such as pickpocketing, bag snatching and theft of mobile phones and computers are common. Foreigners are often particularly vulnerable to petty crime in major cities and in tourist areas, although serious crimes against foreigners are generally uncommon in China.

Sociala media

WeChat is everything social in China. This app is the equivalent of WhatsApp, Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, PayPal and more. Contact friends, send questions to coworkers, post updates about your life, find a new apartment, pay bills, order train and plane tickets—if you can imagine it, WeChat can do it. You’ll get used to adding people as contacts instantly and will soon wonder how you used to keep in touch with people back home.

WeChat Etiquette

  • Ask someone if they are free to talk before you call them.
  • Only post pictures and status updates that you don’t mind everyone seeing, including your boss and colleagues.
  • Feel free to ask anyone for their WeChat. An important networking skill, asking to scan a person’s QR code at the start of a conversation is perfectly fine.
  • Most business people write in Chinese or English. If you struggle to write or read Chinese, the translation feature helps you speak to others in the language you feel most comfortable with.
  • Write in clear sentences that are easy to translate (ie don’t write slang).
  • Stickers are common on WeChat, even among business contacts.
  • Always ask a close friend what the Chinese characters on a sticker mean, or the general concept behind the image. It’s all too easy to accidentally send a sticker that has a rude message on it.

Food

Chinese food is legendary or infamous all over the world. It involves many ingredients, animal parts and recipes that are not widely used in other cuisines, all of which are not pleasant for foreigners. Have you ever heard of smelly tofu? You will as soon as you set foot in China – and you will always remember the first time you smelled it.

There are two things to note here. Firstly, it is worth trying new dishes because most of them are delicious. Second, people may not explain exactly what you are eating. You will often get answers like “pig” or “cow” when you ask what meat (and what part of the animal) to eat.

Food etiquette

Meals are shared in China

Usually, you order a few different dishes that are placed in the middle of the table to share.
Use chopsticks. The only option in some restaurants, and a simple and nice way to eat Chinese dishes.


I‘ll take this

Chinese people, and especially men, will often offer to foot the bill. You can offer to pay for your share but don’t press the issue. Instead, make sure to pay the next time you eat together.
Drinking is encouraged. You can say no to drinking alcohol with your meal, especially strong drinks like Baijiu (a traditional Chinese distilled spirit). However, it is common to buy large bottles of beer to share between everyone. Try not to enter drinking contests – those who challenge you are probably well-practiced at drinking foreigners under the table.

Spices

Chinese dishes can be spicy, and locals ask foreigners if they enjoy spicy food before eating. Foreigners are not expected to be able to eat spicy food, so don’t hesitate to say “no” or “just a little.” Be aware that food from the Sichuan province is particularly spicy. Sichuanese recipes often use Sichuan pepper, which makes your tongue feel them.använder ofta Sichuanpeppar, vilket gör att din tunga känner dom.

Backhanded compliments

Chinese people show they care by getting personal. You’ll discuss your marital status, paycheck and family situation, and prepare to hear that you’ve put on weight or should try to lose weight. If you are over 25, you will also regularly be asked if you have a spouse. If not, why not? These questions show interest in your health and happiness.

Driving in China

Cheap taxis and public transport mean that not many foreigners try to drive in China. If you’re brave enough to hit the fast, giant roads, this section explains everything you need to know.

Driving in China with a foreign driver’s license

China does not accept foreign or international driver’s licenses, regardless of whether you have an American, British or European driver’s license. Long-term expats must apply for a Chinese driver’s license.

How to get driver’s license in China

The legal driving license age in China is 18. Go to your nearest Motor Vehicle Administration Department with the following documents:

A completed application form;

  • ID documents, including visas and entry stamps, plus copies;
  • Foreign driving license with copies and certified Chinese translations;
  • Health certificate;
  • Passport photos;
  • Money for fees – each test costs about 50 CNY (7 USD).

Driving license test in China

Learning to drive in China involves taking driving lessons and then passing two theory tests and two practical tests. Costs about 8,000 CNY (1,120 USD) in total depending on the city you are based in, how many lessons you take and how proficient your instructor is in English.

Your Chinese driving license is valid for 6 years.

Rules for driving in China

Common rules you need to know include:

  • Drive on the right side of the road.
  • Do not use your mobile phone while driving.
  • Seat belts (or helmets for motorcyclists) must always be worn.
  • Do not ride in bus lanes or on bike lanes.
  • Make room for pedestrians.

Chinese citizens do not always follow these rules. Don’t do like them, even if you feel comfortable after a few years of driving. The arguments about bad driving get heated.

Interpret road signs

Road signs can be in English as well as Mandarin. However, characters may not be directly translatable but “pinyin”, the Roman alphabet version of Mandarin. For example, “East Road” may be written in Chinese characters on the road sign, with “Dong Lu” (pinyin for these characters) underneath. There will be no direct English translation; for example “East Road” would not appear anywhere on the sign. You therefore need to understand what pinyin can mean.

Driving under the influence of alcohol

Do not drink before driving in China. Anyone whose blood alcohol level is found to be 0.2-0-8% can be sentenced to a fine and have their driver’s license suspended for six months. The maximum blood alcohol level is 0.8%. Anyone who tests above this commits a crime and can lose their driving license for at least 5 years.

If you are involved in an accident and have been drinking, you will likely have to take responsibility for the accident, even if it was not directly your fault.

Speed limits

Motorways are very well maintained, with a general speed limit of 120 km/h (74 mph). Traffic signs are usually in English and Mandarin.

Express routes are usually found in cities with a speed limit of 100 km/h (62 mph).

National Highways have a speed limit of 40 km/h (24 mph) in a city and 80 km/h (49 mph) outside a city.

City roads and country roads often have only one lane in each direction with speed limits between 30–70 km/h (18–43 mph).

Road tolls

To help finance the continuous expansion of China’s road network, a toll is charged on most expressways, express routes and many national highways. Tolls on major road routes are suspended during extended national holidays, such as Spring Festival.

Accidents

It is an unwritten law that accidents are the fault of the larger vehicle, even if fault is admitted on both sides. If you cause injury to another person, you may have to pay for their hospital fees and cover their wages while they recover. If someone dies in the accident, there will be a criminal investigation.

Keeping calm is important. A foreigner who loses his temper with another driver is not perceived positively.

How to deal with an accident

In the event of an accident, do not leave the scene or move anything. If helping an injured person disturbs the location, be sure to highlight any changes.

Call 122 to speak to the police’s traffic and accident department. If no one was injured and all parties involved agree on fault and compensation, you are not required by law to call the police.

It is useful to always have your passport, a copy of your residence permit and other relevant driving documentation with you when you drive. If you crash, you should take pictures of the scene and get contact details and accident reports in writing. Talk to your insurance company for further instructions.

Car rental

The most economical option for expats in China is to drive a rental car. It is expensive to import and buy a car. Some luxury cars cost twice as much in China as in the US thanks to high taxes and companies charging a higher premium.

You can rent a car if you have a Chinese driver’s license and are over 18 years old. Notable car rental companies operating in China include:

Newspaper

Europcar

Hertz

Public transport in China

The quality and range of public transport in China varies by area. Different cities have different systems; for example, in the “big four” of Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen and Guangzhou, you pay electronically for your tickets at the gate via WeChat.

There is no need to worry about how public transport is in general. It is easy to navigate the country. Buses and trains can take you a few blocks from your home, and even to a completely different province – although some routes involve two full days of travel.

Taxi

They cost around 2-3 CNY (0.3-0.4 USD) per kilometer and are relatively cheap in China. Make sure your driver turns on the meter. Non-Chinese speakers should also have their destination written down in simplified characters, as few drivers understand English.

If you want to hire a taxi for half or a full day, negotiate the price in advance. Depending on the distance, expect to pay around CNY 300-500 (USD 40-70) per day.

Alternatively, you can rent a car with a driver. International rental providers, such as Avis, and local companies offer these services.

Ride Hailing-appar

Didi är den valfria app för åkande i Kina. Uber är inte tillgängligt i landet.

Didi är billigt, men du måste tala och förstå mandarin eller den lokala dialekten i din stad. Taxichaufförer kommer ofta att ringa dig för att ta reda på var du är, eller för att berätta att de är utanför. Att ta taxibilar kan vara lättare för utlänningar men kommer att kosta lite mer pengar.

Places to visit

Great Wall of China

“No one can be a true hero unless he has been on the Great Wall” goes the popular Chinese saying, a saying that clearly shows the importance of this unique ancient monument.

The Forbidden City and the Imperial Palace, Beijing

China’s largest and most important building, the Forbidden City (Zǐjìnchéng) – also known as the Imperial Palace – is located in the heart of Beijing and is a must-see when visiting the country. Begun during the Yuan Dynasty between 1271-1368, much of the complex seen today was built between 1406 and 1420. Truly many magnificent palaces in one, this sprawling complex was the residence of 24 Ming and Qing emperors, whose presence prohibited entry for anyone else than the imperial family and their courtesans.

Terracotta Army, Xi’an

It was while digging wells on the outskirts of Xi’an in the 1970s that farmers stumbled upon what would become China’s most important archaeological find: the Terracotta Army. Spread over three large underground pits and built to guard the tomb of the First Emperor, the find included more than 8,000 life-sized warriors, some 520 horses and more than 100 chariots, along with many other non-military characters from around 280 BC .

Although some were seriously damaged by the passage of time, many of the statues excavated have been painstakingly reassembled and stand as a testament to the importance attached to the emperor and the afterlife. The site – part of Emperor Qin Shi Huang’s Mausoleum Site Park – is one of China’s most important tourist destinations and offers the unforgettable experience of standing before this assembly of soldiers and horses as if inspecting a centuries-old parade. English guided tours are available.

Summer Palace, Beijing

An easy 15-kilometer commute from Beijing, the opulent Imperial Summer Palace (Yíhé Yuán) is set amidst more than 700 hectares of beautiful parkland and is one of China’s most visited attractions. While the palace itself was built in 1153, its Great Lake was added in the 14th century to enhance the Imperial Gardens.